A review article on the Indian Ocean Dipole (※1) by Professor Saji N. Hameed (※2 Environmental Informatics Laboratory) was published in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Climate Science (※3), offered by the Oxford University Press.

The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) is an important climate phenomenon originating over the Indian Ocean. During an IOD, sea surface temperature (SST) cools abnormally in the eastern Indian Ocean, and warms abnormally in the western Indian Ocean (Fig. 1). The IOD phenomenon generates unusual weather conditions in many parts of the world: for example, abnormally hot summers in Japan, strong droughts in Indonesia and Australia, and intense floods in Africa and India.

Fig. 1: image by NASA Earth Observatory


The Oxford Research Encyclopedias, consisting of twenty-five distinct digital encyclopedias, cover basic and advanced topics across the humanities, social sciences, and sciences. All articles are written and peer-reviewed by major researchers of each field, and provide a reliable, regularly updated knowledge base.


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